Changes in chemotherapy protocols have influenced the risk and rate of secondary malignancies in high-risk populations. The alkylating agents, topoisomerase inhibitors, and anthracycline agents pose the highest risk of initiating carcinogenesis.
Which of the following agents is most likely to cause a secondary malignancy?
Chemotherapy drugs are most strongly associated with causing secondary leukemias and some solid tumors including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers.
What causes secondary malignancy?
Secondary malignancies are cancers caused by treatment with radiation or chemotherapy. They are unrelated to the first cancer that was treated, and may occur months or even years after initial treatment.
Which chemo drugs causes secondary malignancy?
Chemotherapy agents that have an increased risk for second cancers include:
- Alkylating agents (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, lomustine, carmustine, busulfan)
- Platinum-based drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin)
What secondary malignant is commonly associated with radiation therapy?
Bone and soft-tissue sarcomas are the most frequent SMNs following radiation therapy, but skin, brain, thyroid, and breast cancers also can occur. Radiation doses less than 30 Gy tend to be associated with thyroid and brain tumors, whereas doses greater than 30 Gy can evoke secondary sarcomas.
What is secondary malignant neoplastic?
Secondary malignant neoplasm is a malignant tumor whose cause is the treatment (usually radiation or chemotherapy) which was used for a prior tumor. It must be distinguished from Metastasis from the prior tumor or a relapse from it since a secondary malignant neoplasm is a different tumor.
What do alkylating agents do to DNA?
What are Alkylating agents? Alkylating agents are compounds that work by adding an alkyl group to the guanine base of the DNA molecule, preventing the strands of the double helix from linking as they should. This causes breakage of the DNA strands, affecting the ability of the cancer cell to multiply.
How common are second cancers?
Second cancers are becoming more common since more people are living longer after their first cancer diagnosis than ever before. About 1 in every 6 people diagnosed with cancer has had a different type of cancer in the past.
Can leukemia cause secondary cancers?
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) can become resistant to treatment and progress to more advanced phases. But sometimes people with CML or develop a new, unrelated cancer later. This is called a second cancer. No matter what type of cancer you have or had, it’s still possible to get another (new) cancer.
What is radiation induced leukemia?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to increase the future incidence of cancer, particularly leukemia. The mechanism by which this occurs is well understood, but quantitative models predicting the level of risk remain controversial.
What chemo causes secondary leukemia?
Drugs that induce secondary leukemias comprise alkylating agents, like cyclophosphamide, topoisomerase II inhibitors, including epipodophylotoxins (etoposide, teniposide), and anthracyclinic agents, like doxorubicin.
Which secondary malignancy has been reported with the use of cisplatin?
Case reports, retrospective analyses, and observational studies have linked the use of cisplatin to increased risk of second cancers, especially life-threatening secondary leukemia.
What is secondary Carcinomatosis?
Secondary cancers are the same type of cancer as the original (primary) cancer. For example, cancer cells may spread from the breast (primary cancer) to form new tumors in the lung (secondary cancer). The cancer cells in the lung are just like the ones in the breast. Also called secondary tumor.
What is radiation induced malignancy?
Radiation-induced malignancies are late complications arising after radiotherapy, increasing in frequency among survivors of both pediatric and adult cancers. Genetic backgrounds harboring germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes are recognized risk factors.
What cancers are caused by radiation?
Cancers associated with high dose exposure include leukemia, breast, bladder, colon, liver, lung, esophagus, ovarian, multiple myeloma, and stomach cancers.
When is cisplatin used?
Cisplatin, a chemotherapy drug, is best known for curing testicular cancer. It is also used in the treatment of a wide range of other cancers, including lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian cancers.