Infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer.
What type of cancer is a female patient predisposed to?
They include the genes of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM. A mutation (alteration) in any of these genes gives a person an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer and other related cancers. Women also have an increased risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers.
When abnormal cancer cells are only found in the tissue of origin?
Also called stage 0 disease. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a group of abnormal cells that are found only in the place where they first formed in the body (see left panel). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread to nearby normal tissue (see right panel).
What is the main contributing factor for most cases of uncontrolled cell division that occurs in human cancer is?
Most cancer-causing DNA changes occur in sections of DNA called genes. These changes are also called genetic changes. A DNA change can cause genes involved in normal cell growth to become oncogenes. Unlike normal genes, oncogenes cannot be turned off, so they cause uncontrolled cell growth.
Which term refers to a tumor that is not deemed cancerous and has not invaded nearby tissues?
There are two general types of tumors: benign (non-cancerous) tumors and malignant (cancerous) tumors. A benign tumor is composed of cells that will not invade other unrelated tissues or organs of the body, although it may continue to grow in size abnormally.
Is cancer genetic or environmental?
Latest research suggests that most cancers are caused by environmental rather than genetic factors. The cancers with the highest genetic contribution include breast, bowel, stomach and prostate cancers.
What types of cancer are genetic?
Some cancers that can be hereditary are:
- Breast cancer.
- Colon cancer.
- Prostate cancer.
- Ovarian cancer.
- Uterine cancer.
- Melanoma (a type of skin cancer)
- Pancreatic cancer.
Can cancer be prevented?
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.
What is the difference between carcinoma and sarcoma?
A carcinoma forms in the skin or tissue cells that line the body’s internal organs, such as the kidneys and liver. A sarcoma grows in the body’s connective tissue cells, which include fat, blood vessels, nerves, bones, muscles, deep skin tissues and cartilage.
Is sarcoma a type of cancer?
A sarcoma is a type of cancer that starts in tissues like bone or muscle. Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are the main types of sarcoma. Soft tissue sarcomas can develop in soft tissues like fat, muscle, nerves, fibrous tissues, blood vessels, or deep skin tissues.
How does uncontrolled cell division cause cancer?
Cancer is unchecked cell growth. Mutations in genes can cause cancer by accelerating cell division rates or inhibiting normal controls on the system, such as cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death. As a mass of cancerous cells grows, it can develop into a tumor.
Which of the following explains why papillomavirus can cause cancer?
Some forms of cancer are linked to specific types of viruses. For instance, infection with certain strains of human papillomavirus can lead to cervical cancer. This virus encodes a protein called E6, which binds to the p53 protein.
What makes some genes responsible for an increased risk of certain cancers?
This is more likely if the mutation affects a gene involved with cell division or a gene that normally causes a defective cell to die. Some people have a high risk of developing cancer because they have inherited mutations in certain genes.
What is a neoplasm?
(NEE-oh-PLA-zum) An abnormal mass of tissue that forms when cells grow and divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Benign neoplasms may grow large but do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues or other parts of the body.
What is the difference between Neoplasia and neoplasm?
Neoplasia (nee-oh-PLAY-zhuh) is the uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells or tissues in the body, and the abnormal growth itself is called a neoplasm (nee-oh-PLAZ-m) or tumor. It can be benign (bee-NINE) or malignant.
Is dysplasia benign or malignant?
In one of the modern histopathologic senses of the term, dysplasia is sometimes differentiated from other categories of tissue change including hyperplasia, metaplasia, and neoplasia, and dysplasias are thus generally not cancerous.