Can granulosa cell tumors spread?

Adult-type ovarian granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) are very rare tumors that account for Where do granulosa cell tumors metastasize to?

Spread is largely within the pelvis and the lower abdomen. Distant metastases are rare with few reported cases of lung, liver, brain, bone, diaphragm, abdominal wall, adrenal gland and supraclavicular lymph node metastasis from ovarian tumors.

Is granulosa cell tumor a cancer?

Sertoli-leydig tumours can be either benign or cancerous. The most common type of SCST are granulosa cell tumours which are cancerous (malignant).

Is adult granulosa cell tumor a cancer?

Adult-type granulosa cell tumor is a clinically and molecularly unique subtype of ovarian cancer. These tumors originate from the sex cord stromal cells of the ovary and represent 3-5% of all ovarian cancers. The majority of adult-type granulosa cell tumors are diagnosed at an early stage with an indolent prognosis.

What do granulosa cell tumors secrete?

Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are derived from the cells that surround developing ovarian follicles. GCTs are typically unilateral and solid and secrete estrogen. Pathologists distinguish between two subtypes of GCT based on the cell of origin: 95% are the adult form and 5% the juvenile subtype.

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What is the tumor marker for granulosa cell tumor?

Lappöhn et al showed that inhibin can be used as a marker of granulosa cell tumors (GCT). Inhibin ia s glycoprotein specifically produced by ovarian granulosa cells.

How rare are granulosa cell tumors?

Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is a rare type of ovarian cancer that accounts for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors. This type of tumor is known as a sex cord-stromal tumor and usually occurs in adults.

How often do granulosa cell tumors recur?

GCTs are rare and may recur 5–30 years after the initial diagnosis [6]. Several factors, such as tumor size, stage, and mitotic index, are associated with recurrence [3]. Recurrence sites vary, and the pelvis, ovary, mesentery, appendix, liver, and omentum have been reported [7].

What stimulates granulosa cells?

Granulosa cells respond to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) mainly by aromatizing androgens to estrogens and to some extent by producing pregnenolone from cholesterol. LDL, low density lipoproteins; cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

Where are granulosa cells located?

Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).

Are granulosa cell tumors hereditary?

If you have daughters, they are not at increased risk for GCT of the ovary because of your wife’s illness; GCT has no known inherited genetic cause.

What causes granular cell tumor?

A granular cell tumour (GrCTs) is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumour(1) that likely arises from Schwann cells. (2) Although it was initially classified as a myoblastoma, recent studies agree that it is more likely to be neural in origin.

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Do granulosa cell tumors produce estrogen?

Adult-type granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), although rare, are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms arising in the endocrine-active ovarian stroma. They are characterized by excessive production of estrogens, antimullerian hormone and inhibins.

What is the function of the granulosa cell?

The granulosa cell (GC) is a critical somatic component of the ovary. It is essential for follicle development by supporting the developing oocyte, proliferating and producing sex steroids and disparate growth factors.

Do granulosa cells produce progesterone?

The granulosa cells respond to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and produce estrogen. Granulosa cells in the large pre-ovulatory follicle also respond to LH and produce progesterone (Webb et al., 2004; Skinner, 2005).